Lectures - conferences (selection)

Dirk JACOBS
(Université Libre de Bruxelles)


"Intégration et radicalisation à Bruxelles"
ULB TV 12 mois 12 experts (14/12/2015)

"Communiquer sa recherche" ULB TV (12/10/2015)

"Meet Dirk Jacobs, researcher in sociology @ ULB" (07/10/2013)

"Gelijke kansen en topresultaten gaan hand in hand"
GO! Onderwijs van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap (01/03/2013)

"Onderwijs en Ongelijkheid" TEDx Talk (13/06/2012)

Closing Remarks Dirk Jacobs
"Fedactio Education Conference" (28/03/2012)

interview with Dirk Jacobs
"Fedactio Education Conference"(13/03/2012)

"Public Opinion and Expansion of Voting Rights"
EUDObservatory (19/11/2011)

"L'oeuvre de Ronald Inglehart".
Semaine des Nobels. (02/10/2010)

2012

- voorstelling discussienota op rondetafelgesprek mbt tot de lerarenopleidingen aan de VUB en EhB, 5 november 2012, UAB, Brussel
- inleiding 'investeren in sociale mobiliteit en emancipatie, startmoment Stadspiratie, georganiseerd door VGC, 25 oktober 2012, De Markten, Brussel
- "la participation politique des personnes issues de l'immigration", colloque Think thank 'Pour la solidarité', 2 octobre 2012, Amazone, Bruxelles
- discussant closing conference "Support and Opposition to Migration" (SOM, FP7 project), 27 september, Residence Palace, Brussels
- "Résultats de l'enquête EURISLAM", Maison des Associations, 20 septembre 2012, Genève, Suisse
- "European Indicators on Immigrant Integration: Education", meeting of National contact points for integration, 17 september 2012, Budapest, Hungary
- "Doing quantitative research on migration and integration", IMISCOE PhD Summer school, 5 July 2012, History Museum, Barcelona
- "Survey findings of the EURISLAM project", closing conference, 20 June 2012, FP7 project, Flagey, Brussels
- "Onderwijs en gelijke kansen", TEDxFlanders, 21 mei 2012, De Singel, Antwerpen
- paneldiscussie 'de rol van de wetenschappers', Colloquium diversiteit en discriminatie op de arbeidsmarkt, presentatie van de diversiteitsbarometer werk, organisatie CGKR, 5 september 2012, Brussel
- présentation du "Immigrant Citizen Survey: les résultats belges", 9 mai 2012, Hotel Stanhope, Bruxelles, organisé par la Fondation Roi Baudouin
- discussant "la diversité contre l'égalité", Walter Benn Michaels (University of Illinois, Chicago), journée d'étude "De la question sociale à la question ethnique. Comment articuler classe, genre et ethnicité", 8 mai 2012, ULB, Bruxelles
- keynote speech LOP Basis- en Secundair Nederlanstalig Onderwijs Brussel, Open Denkdag over 'armoede & onderwijs', 25 april 2012, De Markten, Brussel
- "De PISA resultaten", studiedag lerarenopleiding, Erasmushogeschool Brussel, 16 maart 2012
- closing remarks conference "Divers talents for the future of Europe. International conference on Education", 6 & 7 March 2012, European Parliament and Flemish Ministry of Education and Training, Fedactio, Brussels
- chair roundtable "Citizenship and immigrant integration", Kick-off conference "Access to citizenship and its impact on immigrant integration" (ACIT), Brussels, 12 January 2012

2011

- "Becoming Part of a Disintegrating Nation State: Political Inclusion of Foreigners in Belgium, a Polity in Crisis", Conference "Fear and Anxiety over National Identity: Contrasting North American and European Experiences and Public Debates on Immigrant and Second Generation Integration", Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 9 & 10 December 2011
- "Associational involvement and Political Participation of Ethnic Minority Groups", Séminaire Paris, Metropoles. Le défi de la gouvernance, Paris, hôtel de Ville, 1 & 2 Décembre 2011
- discussant "Reflecties op de resultaten van de survey gelijke kansen", Studievoormiddag "Het leven zoals het is en zou moeten zijn. De publieke opinie over gelijke kansen in Vlaanderen", Steunpunt Gelijkekansenbeleid, Brussel, 24 november 2011
- "Inégalités sociales dans l'enseignement", Colloque "Des synergies pour raccrocher à l'école. L'égalité à l'école", Centre du Libre Examen, Quinzaine de l'égalité des chances et de la diversité, Bruxelles, 23 novembre 2011
- "Showing the Unspeakable: Election Posters in Pursuit of the Ethnic Minority Vote in Brussels" (with Nawal Bensaid), workshop "The Political Immigrant: a Comparative Portrait", Concordia University, Montreal, 18-19 november 2011
- "Public Opinion and Expansion of Voting Rights: Who's Leading the Dance?", 2011 EUDO Dissemination Conference, European Union Democracy Observatory on Citizenship (EUDO), Brussels, European Parliament, 9-10 november 2011
- discussant "Promoting access to socio-economic rights of migrants and minorities with education", Seminar "Includ-ED. Education as a tool for the promotion of social inclusion: the case of migrants and minorities", 27 September 2011, Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels
- "The impact of substate nationalism and ‘horizontal’ Europeanization on migration policy: the case of family reunification in Belgium", Council for European Studies, Barcelona Conference, Session on "Immigration and Multilevel Governance: Politics and Society", 21 June 2011
- "Reality check: Vergelijking van de Belgische resultaten van MIPEX III op het vlak van onderwijs met de resultaten van het PISA onderzoek", Ronde Tafel MIPEX III, "Toegang van migrantenkinderen tot onderwijs en hun slaagkansen", Brussel, Koning Boudewijnstichting, 13 Mai 2011
- "Analyse van de PISA resultaten voor België: de sociale lift blijft steken", Brussel, Fedactio, Paleizenstraat, 6 Mei 2011
- "Associational involvement and political participation of ethnic minority groups", International Conference "The Others in Europe and Beyond", Bruxelles, ULB, 28 April 2011
- "Pathways to political participation of third country nationals", keynote speech Expert Seminar on European Modules: Active Participation of Immigrants in all aspects of Collective Life, European Commission, Brussels, 7-8 April 2011
- invited presentation “Wat is MIPEX? Opzet, resultaten en gebruik”, presentatie van de derde editie Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX), FORUM & British Council, Nieuwpoort, Den Haag, 2 maart 2011

2010

- invited presentation “Design and Use of the Migrant Integration Policy Index”, Transatlantic Dialogues: Immigration, Citizenship and Modernity, 17 December 2010, Munk School of Global Affairs, University of Toronto, Toronto
- "Ethnic voting in Brussels", Lecture Urban Studies Research Priority Area, 4 November 2010, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam.
- discutant « Deadly symbiosis », Louis Wacquant (UCLA Berkeley), LAMC-GERME workshop autour de Louis Wacquant, ULB, Bruxelles, 15 octobre 2010. - Key-note European Migration Network conference, "Long-term follow-up of immigrants trajectories", Belgian presidency EU, Monitoring migrant inclusion in the European Union. Towards the longitudinal study of migrants’ trajectories, 28-29 September 2010, Egmont Palace, Brussels.
- invited presentation “Ethnic voting in Brussels. Voting Patters among Ethnic Minorities in Brussels (Belgium) during the 2006 Local Elections”, workshop “The political representation of ethnic minorities in the UK in comparative perspective”, An Economic and Social Research Council Seminar Series, organised by Manchester University & University of Oxford, Nuffield College, Oxford, 13 April 2010.
- invited participant to round table, “Immigrant Political Incorporation in Europe”, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Diversity & University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 11 June 2010.

2009

- invited presentation of paper co-authored with Yoann Veny, ‘Citizenship and management of ethnic diversity in the bilingual Brussels Capital Region’, Ethnicity and democratic governance public conference, Ottawa (Canada), 3 December 2009
- invited presentation ‘The Migrant Integration Policy Index’, Interdisziplinären Studien- und Forschungsreichs Interpäd, Leibniz Universität Hannover, 9 November 2009
- présentation « Ecole et intégration», forum Ecole de l’Espoire, Fondation Reine Paola, Palais Royale Bruxelles, 24 novembre 2009.
- presentatie ‘ het PISA-onderzoek ’ op Congres ‘Uit de Marge’, Jeugdwerk, sessie onderwijs, huis van de Sport, Antwerpen, 20 november 2009.
- presentatie ‘ leerprestaties van allochtone en autochtone leerlingen volgens PISA 2006’, Sociaal Economische Raad voor Vlaanderen (SERV), Brussel, 21 oktober 2009.
- presentatie ‘leerprestaties van allochtone en autochtone leerlingen volgens PISA 2006’, onderzoeks- en beleidscel Ministerie Onderwijs van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Brussel, H. Consciencegebouw, 16 september 2009.
- inleiding workshop 'fundamenten van het Europese burgerschap: een Europa door en voor de burger?', Seminar van Consultaties van Het Middenveld in het kader van de voorbereidingen van het Belgisch voorzitterschap, FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Buitenlandse Handel en Ontwikkelingssamenwerking en EGMONT- Koninklijk Instituut voor Internationale Betrekkingen, 30 maart 2009, Egmont Paleis, Brussel.
- participation to paneldiscussion 'Art of Integration', 27 March 2009, event organised by the British Embassy at the British Council Brussels
- presentatie 'De sociale lift is nog steeds in panne', Onderwijskundig Seminarie van het Ministerie Onderwijs van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, La Roche, 12 maart.
- presentation 'Bringing forward comparative European surveys of public perceptions', Technical Seminars on Integration and Immigration. European Cooperation Mechanisms, 19 and 20 february 2009, Tallinn, Estonia.
- presentation ‘Ethno-cultural diversity, citizenship and migrant integration policy in Belgium', Exploratory Workshop ‘When multiculturality meets ethnoregionalism: The integration of immigrants amidst ethno-linguistic conflict’, Barcelona (Spain), 22-23 January 2009.

2008

- participatie aan debat 'Waarom het integratiebeleid evalueren en op welke manier?', Pas de Deux. Gedeelde visie op integratie in België? Politiques d'intégration en Belgique: quelles évolutions?, Seminarie Centrum voor Gelijkheid van Kansen en voor Racismebestrijding, 27 November, Brussels.
- presentatie 'Prestaties van autochtone en allochtone leerlingen volgens het PISA onderzoek 2006. Een vergelijking tussen de Vlaamse en Franse Gemeenschap", Onderwijskundig Seminarie van het Ministerie Onderwijs van de Vlaamse Gemeenschap, La Roche, 20 November.
- presentation 'What is immigrant integration? Why a migrant survey also needs a control sample of non-immigrants', ESF SCSS Exploratory Workshop: Surveying Immigrant Population in Studies of Social and Political Participation: Methodological and Technical Challenges, Madrid (Spain), 16-18 October 2008.
- presentation 'MIPEX. The Belgian results', Workshop 'Towards a better Belgian score on the Migrant Integration Policy Index', Crown Plaza Hotel, Brussels, 4 June.
- presentation 'Inleiding workshop. Management van diversiteit in Onderwijs', Studiedag 'Portretten in kleur. Managers van diversiteit', Koning Boudewijnstichting, Vlaams Parlement, 24 januari.

2007

- presentation 'Design, use and results of MIPEX (Migrant Integration Policy Index)', MIPEX Expert meeting the Netherlands, British Council and FORUM, Utrecht, 22 November.
- presentation 'Political participation and access to nationality. A trade-off?', European Policy Center - King Baudouin Foundation Policy Dialogue, 'Integrating Migrants: half-way to best practice', Brussels, 21 November.
- presentation 'The challenges of globalisation for European culture', Belgo-British Conference, London, 13 November.
- présentation 'Historique et état des lieux du droit de vote des étrangers en Belgique', Colloque 'Actualité du droit de vote des résidents étrangers', Amiens, 10 November 2007.
- presentation 'Networks of Moroccan and Turkish organisations and political participation of immigrants in Brussels', European Consortium for Political Research, General Conference, Pisa (Italy), 8 september 2007 (co-author Rebecca Thijs)
- presentation 'Voting rights for foreign residents in Belgium', conference 'Political Participation of Aliens at Local Level', Barcelona, 19 and 20 July 2007, organized by Institut de Dret Públic and Fundació Carles Pi i Sunyer
- hoorzitting, commissie onderwijs Vlaamse Gemeenschapscommissie, ‘Prestaties van de leerlingen van buitenlandse herkomst in België volgens de PISA-studie. Vergelijking tussen de Franse Gemeenschap en de Vlaamse Gemeenschap’ 23 mei 2007
- presentation ‘The end of national models? Integration courses and citizenship trajectories in Europe', paper prepared for the EUSA-conference, Montréal, 17-19 May 2007 (co-author Andrea Rea)
- presentatie 'Politieke participatie van allochtonen in België', Lezing projectweek 1ste Bachelor Politieke, Communicatie en Sociale Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 30 maart 2007

2006

- présentation ‘Participation politique et impact électoral des citoyens européens’ (ensemble avec Pascal Delwit), Colloque Interuniversitaire et International sur Bruxelles et l’Europe, 19 décembre 2006, Bruxelles.
- 'Performances des élèves issus de l’immigration en Belgique selon l’étude PISA : une comparaison entre la Belgique francophone et la Flandre', présentation, Slaagkansen en integratie van allochtone jongeren. Identificatie van de kritische succesfactoren in een Europese context, Seminarie Koning Boudewijnstichting, Woensdag 6 december 2006, Bedford Hotel, Brussel.
- 'the challenge of measuring immigrant origin and ethnicity in Europe', paper presented at the 'Changing cultures: European perspectives', Conference of the ESA Research network for the Sociology of Culture, Ghent, 15-17 November 2006, presentation on 15 November.
- 'crash course on Belgium and Belgian policies for Immigrant Integration', invited presentation at a meeting of the Migration Learning Community, 13-18 November 2006, Fondation Roi Baudouin, Vlaams Minderhedenforum, Brussels, presentation on 14 November.
- 'regional policies on integration in Belgium', presentation at the IMISCOE-workshop "Decentralised Migration Policy in Europe", Edinburgh University, 2-3 November 2006.
- participation as invited expert to Politis Summer school, 'Active Civic Participation of Immigrants', Schwerte, Germany, 13-17 July 2006.
- 'political participation of Moroccan immigrants in Brussels', An international conference on Middle East and North African Immigrants and their Descendants, Diaspora/Homeland Relations: Transnationalism and the reconstruction of Identities in Europe', Maison Française & St.Antony's College, Oxford University, 6 May, Oxford.
- 'the space for immigrant ethnic minorities in a multinational context: the Belgian case', Ethnic Mobilization in the New Europe, An international interdisciplinary workshop, 21 april, Royal Flemish Academy of Belgium for Science and Art, Bruxelles.
- 'territoires urbains, immigrés et pauvreté à Bruxelles', Journée d'études "L’intégration des immigrés : une comparaison Montréal - Bruxelles", 21 février, Bruxelles.
- 'construction and import of ethnic categorisations: 'allochthones' in the Netherlands and Belgium', EURODIV-conference, 26-27 January, Milano.

2005

- 'identity and national identification in Belgium', contribution to lunch conference for Deputy Heads of Mission of EU embassies in Brussels, British Embassy, 29 november, Brussels.
- 'omgang met culturele diversiteit in België', lezing Actueel denken en leven, Brasschaat, 26 september 2005, CC Brasschaat, Ruiterhal.
- 'political participation of immigrant origin citizens in Belgium', "ESF/LESC-SCSS Exploratory Workshop: Citizens, non-citizens and voting rights in Europe", School of Law, Old College, University of Edinburgh, UK, 2-5 June 2005.
- 'actief burgerschap in Vlaanderen', inleiding op de Belgian Migration Dialogue, woensdag 15 juni 2005, Koning Boudewijnstichting.
- 'associational life of immigrants in Brussels', 26 januari 2005, Amerikaanse ambassade - American Embassy, Brussel.
- conclusies colloquium 'Migratie vroeger en nu, gelijkenissen en verschillen', Brussel, 4 maart 2005.
- interventie 'Associational life and political participation of Moroccans and Turcs in Brussels', Amsterdam, workshop 'migrant organizations, social capital and democracy', 18 maart 2005.
- gastlezing 'Het allochtone verenigingsleven', thema-avond n.a.v. 40 jaar Provinciaal Integratiecentrum Limburg, Heusden-Zolder, 22 april 2005.
- conférence 'Le profil des élus et des candidats aux élections régionales bruxelloises de juin 2004', Troisième congrès triennal de l'ABSP-CF, Université de Liège, "Politologie francophone : Un état des lieux. Axes porteurs et jeunes chercheurs", Liège, 29 avril 2005.

2004

- ‘Alive and kicking? Multiculturalism in Flanders, Conference of Europeanists, Chicago, March 11-13, 2004
- Discussant (invited) panel on ‘Mixed methodology’, AERA Annual Meeting, San Diego, April 14, 2004.
- Guest lecture (invited speaker) ‘Dealing with ethnic diversity in federal Belgium’ op de conferentie ‘Globalització Política i Diversitat Nacional’, Barcelona, 17-19/6/2004, Forum.
- Interventie (gevraagd) op de werkgroepvergadering ‘Burgerschap’ van 30 juni 2004 van de Commissie voor de Interculturele dialoog, Brussel.
- Interventie (gevraagd) op de plenaire commissiebijeenkomst van 7 juli 2004 van de Commissie voor de Interculturele dialoog, Brussel.
Presentation (invited speaker) ‘Associational life and political involvement of Turkish migrants in Europe’, Bogacizi University, Istanbul, 8-9 October 2004.
- Presentatie aangaande electoraal succes allochtone kandidaten op Colloquium Interuniversitair Consortium aangaande migratie en integratie, Koninklijke Militaire School, Brussel, 18-19 oktober 2004.
- Presentatie aangaande het allochtoon verenigingsleven op Colloquium Interuniversitair Consortium aangaande migratie en integratie, Koninklijke Militaire School, Brussel, 18-19 oktober 2004.

2003

- Guest lecture (invited speaker) ‘Minorities in the Brussels Capital Region’, presentatie op conferentie ‘European regional minorities and immigration: confluent realities, European Institute of the Mediterranean (Iemed) en Generalitat Catalunia, Barcelona, 17-18 januari 2003.
- Debate (invited speaker) debattenreeks ‘Scheve ogen. De radicalisering van het integratie-en immigratiedebat’, 18-20 februari 2003, Tilburg (Studium Generale, UvT), Rotterdam (De Unie) en Amsterdam (De Balie).
- Paper presentation 'Social capital and political participation of immigrants in Brussels', Tilburg, 26-28 March 2003, Anniversary Conference 'Sustainable ties in the information society'.
- Paperpresentatie ‘Optimisme en pessimisme in Vlaanderen’ (met Marc Swyngedouw), APSstudiedag, Vlaamse Gemeenschap, Brussel, 6 mei 2003.
- Paper presentation ‘The Arab European League. The rapid rise of a radical immigrant movement’, paper presented at the conference of the European Consortium for Political Research, Section ‘Social movements, contentious politics and social exclusion’ (section 21), Panel ‘Political mobilization by immigrants’ (panel 5), Marburg september 2003.
- Gastcollege Facultés Universitaires Notre-Dame de la Paix, Namur, Facultés Economiques, Sociales et de Gestion, opleiding politicologie, 28 oktober 2003, 14u-16u, ‘Het falen van Agalev bij de verkiezingen van mei 2003’
Lezing ‘Omgang met etnische diversiteit in het federale België’, UDL-lezingen voor senioren, KUBrussel, Brussel, 4 november 2003.
- Lezing ‘stemrecht voor niet-EU-burgers’, Raad van Brusselaars van Vreemde origine, Brussel Stad, Stadhuis Brussel, 20 november 2003.
- Lezing ‘gemeentelijk stemrecht voor niet-EU-burgers’, Afro-Europese Stichting vzw, UFSIA, Antwerpen, 29 November 2003.

2002

- Paper presentation ‘Social capital and political participation among ethnic minority groups in Brussels. A test of the civic community argument of Fennema and Tillie’, (co-authors Karen Phalet and Marc Swyngedouw), paper presented at Joint Sessions of the European Consortium for Political Research, Workshop ‘Political participation of immigrants and their descendents’, Torino, 22-27 March 2002.
- Guest lecture ‘Nieuw radical rechts in Nederland’, De Unie, Rotterdam, 24 april 2002.
- Lezing ‘Veranderende patronen in politieke participatie van migranten in Brussel’, Brusselse Stadssalons, De Pianofabriek, Elsene, 26 Juni 2002.
Paperpresentatie 'politieke participatie van allochtonen in de Brusselse gemeenten’, met Marc Swyngedouw, Brussel, Interuniversitair Colloquium de Brusselse Gemeenten, 19 december 2002.

2001

- Gastcollege: Iris, Sociale Hogeschool Brussel, vervolmakingsseminarie voor socio-cultureel werkers in het Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest, Brussel, 15 maart 2001, 14u-17u (Brussels Parlement), lezing over Brussel politiek en institutioneel
- Paper presentation 'Verklaringen voor etnocentrisme’ APS-studiedag, Vlaamse Gemeenschap. Brussel, 19 april 2001.
Invited speaker Belgian Senate, genodigd spreker in senaatshoorzitting over stemrecht voor migranten, Belgische Senaat, 20 november 2001, Brussel (zie verslag in wetgevingsstuk Senaat, zitting 2001-2002, 2-nr. 548/7).
- Paper presentation ‘Changing patterns of Political participation of immigrants in the Brussels Capital Region. The October 2000 elections’, (co-authors Marco Martiniello and Andrea Rea), paper presented at the sixth Metropolis conference, Rotterdam, November 27 2001.

2000

- Lecture ‘De Nederlandse ervaring met stemrecht voor migranten’, Antiracistisch forum en solidariteitsfeest, Brussel, 25 november 2000.

1999

- Guest lecture 'het politieke debat omtrent kiesrecht voor vreemdelingen in Nederland en België', Les rencontres du CEDEM, Centre d'études de l'etnicité et des migrations (CEDEM), Université de Liège, 21 januari 1999, Auditoire Marx, Liège, 16u-18u.
- Paper presentation 'De toekomst van Brussel als meertalige en multiculturele stad. Hebt u al een partijstandpunt?', Interuniversitair Colloquium 'Het Statuut van Brussel', Koninklijke Academie der Wetenschappen, Brussel, 26 februari 1999.
- Paper presentation 'The debate over enfranchisement of foreign residents in the Netherlands and Belgium. Absence of the ethnic minority voice?', Joint Sessions of the European Consortium for Political Research, Workshop 'Ethnic minorities, political mobilisation and citizenship: Comparative, transnational and integrated approaches', Mannheim, 26-31 March 1999.
- Guest lecture ‘Political rights as an exception to post-national citizenship’, 9h-12h and workshop ‘How to compare political debates and discourses on enfranchisement of foreign residents in EUcountries’, 14h-17h, ERCOMER-Summer school, European Research Centre on Ethnicity and Migration (ERCOMER, Universiteit Utrecht), Summer School te Lissabon, 27 mei 1999.
- Paper presentation 'Minority representation in a multinational and polyethnic society. The challenge of the Region of Brussels-Capital', 'From entry to exit: ethnic claims and state responses in Europe', Conference Ethnobarometer / Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, Castel Gandolfo, 24-26 June 1999.
- Guest lecture 'Origins, definition and development of the European nation state', AREA-meeting, Archives of European Archeology, Paris, 2 oktober 1999.
- Debate Colloquium Mensenrechten en stemrecht voor migranten, debat met Johan Leman en Meryem Kaçar o.l.v. prof. dr. Jan Servaes, KUBrussel, Brussel, 16 december 1999, 17u30-19u.

1997

- Paper presentation 'Migrants and Political Citizenship. Soysal's model of Postnational Membership and the Dutch debate over voting rights for foreign residents', Joint Sessions of the European Consortium for Political Research, Bern, 27/2-4/3/1997.

1995

- Paper presentation 'Rome was not built in a day. The commonwealths of Boltanski and Thévenot and the analysis of a debate on rights and religion in Flanders', conferentie Theory, Culture and Society, Berlijn, 10-14 augustus 1995.
- Paper presentation 'Implicit Constructions in Parliamentary Debate over Voting Rights for Foreign Residents in the Netherlands and Belgium', conferentie Political Linguistics, Antwerpen, 7-9 december 1995.

1994

- Paper presentation 'The game of orthography', conferentie Nations, Language and the Construction of Europe, KULeuven, Leuven, 7-10 november 1994.

last update: 7 April 2011